Permanent magnets: How they work and what applications there are.

Permanent magnets are particularly strong and long-lasting. They can be used in many different areas, from medicine to industry. But what exactly makes them so special?

What are permanent magnets?

A permanent magnet is a magnet that retains its magnetic properties permanently and does not lose its magnetic force after a while. Today, this type of magnet is manufactured using special alloys of metals such as iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and aluminum (Al) with additions of cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu).

The sintering process produces particularly strong permanent magnets, such as neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (SmCo). These materials (neodymium and samarium) belong to the so-called rare earth metals. The element neodymium has the strongest magnetic force of all known materials and is therefore one of the most frequently used permanent magnets.

The opposite of a permanent magnet is the electromagnet, whose magnetic field becomes weaker with increasing distance from the coil.

How do permanent magnets work?

But how do permanent magnets actually work? Quite simply, magnetic forces are created by the presence of iron, cobalt or nickel in their composition. The combined force of these metals is what makes magnets so special.

It is also important to note that the magnetic fields of permanent magnets are not completely stable - they can be altered by external influences such as temperature or mechanical stress.

What are possible applications for permanent magnets?

The possible applications are very extensive and as diverse as the magnets themselves. Permanent magnets are used in many different areas due to their strong magnetic forces. From industry and households to technology and construction - you can find examples of applications for permanent magnets everywhere. For example, permanent magnets are often used in electronics and industry and can be used in motors, generators or transformers. Permanent magnets are also found in household appliances such as vacuum cleaners or refrigerators. Permanent magnets are available in different designs and sizes. Among other things, they can be manufactured as ring magnets, disc magnets, cuboid magnets or bar magnets.